What happens when you go into respiratory failure?
the usual exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs does not occur. As a result, enough oxygen cannot reach the heart, brain, or the rest of the body. This can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, a bluish tint in the face and lips, and confusion.
The respiratory system is the system that makes life possible by recombination (recombination of chemical compounds formed by chemical reactions to produce the same original compound – recombination) of gases, which is a basic and necessary process for living existence. The body needs oxygen to produce the energy required for all metabolic processes (metabolism), while the byproduct of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide, is excreted from the body.
The function of the respiratory system is mainly to absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide. To do this, this device relies on two basic elements: 1. The pump mechanism, ie – the rib cage and muscles, including the diaphragm, which collectively cause a change in the volume of the lungs, thus allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. 2. The lungs themselves, in which recombination takes place in their linings.
When the respiratory system is not healthy and cannot perform these operations properly and properly, the condition is defined as “respiratory failure (failure).
It is also possible to classify the different cases of respiratory failure into: acute respiratory failure or chronic respiratory failure.
There are many diseases that can cause respiratory failure. Respiratory failure which is mainly embodied in oxidative stress, its common causes are: pneumonia , injury to the lungs, pulmonary edema of various causes, as well as inflammation due to a variety of causes and manifested in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
which mainly appears in the form of carbon dioxide accumulation, is often related to problems in the pulmonary pump mechanism, various muscular or neurological diseases, problems in the rib cage wall, as well as problems affecting the building of the lungs in a way that restricts the movement of air to them, such as: chronic lung, emphysema (emphysema) or bronchitis (bronchitis).
Causes and risk factors for respiratory failure
The problems that cause respiratory failure can be classified into two main groups:
- A failure related to gas atomization, leading mainly to a defect in the oxidation of blood.
- Aeration failure, primarily resulting in difficulty in evacuating carbon dioxide.
Diagnosis of respiratory failure
is primarily based on a detailed medical history and a thorough physical examination.
The patient’s complaint of respiratory failure, and signs of illness, can direct the doctor and indicate an underlying difficulty in the respiratory system. Characteristic complaints include: shortness of breath , anxiety , sweating, headache, rapid pulse and rapid breathing. When carbon dioxide accumulates, the symptoms are: drowsiness, restlessness, tremors and fainting in extreme cases.
There are tests to help diagnose respiratory failure and its causes. Chest imaging can provide information about the structure of the lung tissue and about the presence of secretions indicating the presence of inflammation or edema of the lungs. Examination of gases in the blood reveals the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the patient, and can also measure the degree of acidity of the blood (pH).
More complex tests include a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the thoracic cage in order to better identify the structure of the lung tissue, as well as an examination of the functional performance of the lungs and a scan (scan) of the lungs.
Respiratory failure treatment
Treatment of the patient with respiratory failure should be two-way/objective: treatment of the dysfunction, as supportive therapy, and treatment of the original, underlying, problem causing the respiratory failure. In some patients, the only possible treatment is symptomatic treatment by improving the level of oxidation or ventilation, while the lung itself treats the cause of respiratory failure.
There are many therapeutic methods available to doctors to treat patients with respiratory failure. These methods are classified into several groups:
- Drug therapy, such as: bronchodilators, anti-inflammatories, or anticoagulants (blood-thinning drugs), gases, such as oxygen enrichment, in order to improve (raise) the oxygen concentration in the blood of a patient with a gas recombination disorder.
- As part of the treatments, physical therapy (physiotherapy) for the respiratory system must be adopted, in order to improve the degree of secretions that the patient can phlegm, as well as the patient’s ability to inhale and exhale.
- One of the most common treatments for people with respiratory failure is artificial respiration, when the patient cannot breathe spontaneously enough. In the overwhelming majority of cases, it is about positive pressure breathing, that is, by means of an artificial respiration device that pumps gas, under pressure, into the patient’s lungs. Artificial respiration is categorized into invasive breathing and noninvasive ventilation. In excessive breathing, positive pressure is generated on the patient’s lungs by means of a tube inserted into the trachea. In non-invasive breathing, the gas is pumped into the patient’s lungs using a mask attached to his face.
- It has recently been found that it has become possible to rehabilitate patients with respiratory failure to a high degree, by means of gradual physical activity, with the integration of all that has been discussed above.
In recent years, there has been a great development so that patients with chronic respiratory failure can continue to live at home or within an appropriate framework even when they are completely dependent on artificial respiration.